Health Architecture Redesign – One End of the Spectrum

Maternal and Child Mortality in Nigeria

For the most part, Nigeria is doing poorly in the health industry. Given its developmental stage however, the country is not expected to perform at the same level of excellence with Industrialized countries. But its poor and jeopardized developmental pathway has retarded its overall socioeconomic progress. The statistics is high for a country that has the amount of human and natural resources Nigeria is blessed with. Loads of institutional patterns of error had plagued the most populous black nation of the world. Malaria, tuberculosis and other third world infectious diseases are still threatening the productivity of the country. With “recovery” system of governance and institutional ignorance, life expectancy in the country is estimated at 47-50 years of age. Nevertheless, life above 50 is characterized by affluence, education, nutritional intelligence or ability to drag on to the end.

As globally attractive as Nigeria may seem, especially in oil and gas drilling, the human development report of 2007/2008 did put the black nation in its place. The UNDP report ranked Nigeria close to bottom in the maternal mortality index. The country was only ahead of low income countries under stress (LICUS) like Rwanda, Angola, Chad, Niger, and Sierra Leone. The political argument behind this ranking is rested on the nation’s population and human density; which allows higher contact rates and rapid spread. As much as that part is true; the nation has no clear view on how to keep its citizens healthy.

There is no shared vision amongst the health care stakeholders. This includes care delivery organizations, clinicians, health care consumers and policy makers. Undoubtedly, with higher population comes increase in disease spread. Nevertheless, for Nigeria, there is no in depth profiling of the health of its citizens. The oil rich nation lacks proper information gathering and dissemination systems. These 21st century multi-dimensional development tools inform a country on required patterns of intervention. Every citizen-within accountability age brackets – should understand how much of health care remains a civil right against what is available.

The country needs to get the politics and economics of the situation right. Health promotion and care delivery in the nation needs audacious, practical and quick impact development projects.

Statistics on Maternal and Child mortality:

According to a national estimate, the Nigerian population is at 140 million; 1 in 5 Africans is a Nigerian. By the same report, 23% are women of child bearing age. In 2006, a national report estimated that 65 million Nigerians were females. 30 million of that number is within reproductive age -15-49 years. 6 million Nigerian women are expected to get pregnant every year. In 2007, WHO, UNICEF, UNDP estimated only 5 million of those pregnancies to result into childbirth.

Other statistics emerged in diverse directions. Quickly, these hard numbers may not completely capture the whole picture. And in this writing, they serve as an indicator of what the actual might be. Modern contraceptive prevalence rate is at 8% and unwanted pregnancy among adolescent is put at 60%. The use of antenatal care, by trained provider is calculated at 64%; while proportion of pregnant women delivered by a trained provider is at 37%. Proportion of women delivered at home is 57%; and almost half of teenage mothers do not receive antenatal care.

On nutrition and drugs; 58% receive iron supplements and 30% receive malaria drugs. 50% receive two or more doses of tetanus. In all, urban women are more on the positive side of things than their rural counterparts. For instance, urban women are 3 times likely to receive antenatal than rural women. Though improvements are recorded in a recent national publication, a lot needs to be done.

Enlarged perspective:

This is what the global mortality rate on women looks like. Globally-536,000 women die annually. Though Nigeria contributes 1.7% of the global population; yet on maternal deaths statistics, it represents 10% of the world’s population. Here is the scary part. Since Nigeria represents 10% of maternal deaths, it translates to at least 53,000 women dying annually. That is the equivalent of 10 jumbo jets crashing every month and one 737 jet every day or one woman dying every 10-15 minutes. A Nigerian woman is 500 times more likely to die in childbirth than her European counterpart.

On the part of children, about 5.3 million of them are born yearly in Nigeria, that- at least 11,000 every day. 1 million of these children die before the age of 5 years. A total 0f 2,300 children die daily. This is equal to 23 plane crashes daily. More than a quarter (25%) of the estimated 1 million children who die under the age of 5 years annually in Nigeria, die during the neonatal period. (Source; Academic Report on Improving Maternal, New Born and Child Health)

Granted socio-cultural and economic status of women constitutes major part of this statistics. For instance low status of women, poverty, poor nutrition (in childhood, adolescence and adulthood), ignorance and illiteracy; then again we can also consider religious beliefs-often times this acts as barrier to utilization of available health services-and lastly, harmful traditional practices. Generally there are multi-dimensional causes that contribute to health care difficulties in the country. But if Nigeria can improve on its data generation, collection and distribution, in line with socio-cultural, economic and educational differences; such data management and governance will allow reformers to practically evaluate and monitor intervention programmes. Progress in this format will mean successfully executed intervention procedures against institutional targets and original understanding of crises.

This process can be weighed in the WHO’s aims and objectives for primary health care. The forward thinking organization’s recommendation called for practical, scientifically sound, socially acceptable and technologically empowered system of health promotion and care delivery. It also suggests development methods and strategies for spirited self reliance and determination. Now, data collation will largely involve community participation.

There is no better form of promoting self determination; which is the ability of a group to manage their resources as they see fit: Without countervailing harmful effects on its immediate environment or extended neighbours. Based on their core values and norms, the communities can assist in describing and designing an intervention platform, suitable for their developmental status. With such level of inter-participation, reformers can readily identify what part of a community’s capacity tool-set needs assistance and which requires reorientation. Health promotion and care delivery education and its needs can be communicated easily; in a community’s frame of reference.

Nigeria is a signatory to various conventions and declarations on women. For example the UN conventions on the rights of women and children; as well as the Bamako declaration that adopted the women and children health services initiative as a strategy towards attainment of vision 2010.

But these legal rights issue on women and children should be communicated to fundamentalist communities with ease and cohesive diplomacy. Direct use of any kind of force, intellectual or economic, will reduce the chances of success in such locations. Achieving health care best practices in Nigeria requires robust collaboration, shared vision, competitive market development, technological awareness, consumer profiling, responsive policy prescriptions, corporate alignment between capital spending and corporate goals, and finance. These sets of interaction should target core value proposition, interoperability and reduction in silo effects.

Recommendations:

Across health care market are actors in practice that will determine the trajectory of its institutional future. Health care providers’ current concentrations in Africa are basically on episodic and acute medicine. Expansion on these scales of concern is imperative for public health. However, best practices and competitive global health care market will respond more to enhanced management of chronic diseases and life-long prediction and prevention of illness. On predictive and preventive medicine, consumers will need to assume responsibility for their health, as well as establish demands for a transformed health care system. By this attempt, health care blueprints will showcase higher value delivery.

Given this awareness, product suppliers will find it imperative to collaborate with clinicians and care delivery organizations in the development of products that improve outcomes or provide equivalent outcomes at lower cost. These functions are relatively dependent upon norms and values of a given society. Societies on their part ought to engage realistic and rational decisions regarding lifestyle expectations. They will also need to prescribe acceptable behaviour, and lastly understand how much health care should be a societal right versus market service. Health care governance best practices underline disease prevention, early detection and health promotion as a given. As a result, societies will play a bigger role in enhancing and in carrying the professional message of preventive medicine.

Government on the other hand will need to raise various levels and scales of un-sustainability awareness on national health care system. Best practices assigns governments in leadership the role of establishing political will power needed to remove obstacles. They must encourage innovation through development of competitive health care market place, suitable and conducive for direct foreign investments. This can be achieved with well integrated and robust development pathways. Efforts at rebranding or reimagining Africa’s economic performances may not yield appropriate fruit without strong financial systems.

Financial institutions in Africa have the highest lending interest rates. Consequently, there are all sorts of systematic crises in the region’s economies. Optimized financial systems will reduce systematic corporate and household debt crises. This is an algorithmic pathway to regenerate entrepreneurship, public-private partnership, as well as improved economic security on wellbeing and livelihood. Health care governance best practices points towards “commoditization” of health promotion and care delivery. The health care market is evolving rapidly and like technology, countries that refuse to adapt will continue on dependency syndrome. There is high confidence that businesses who understand the development of health care will lead their industries in the future. Dilatory management decisions against this truth may reduce future corporate profitability. This is particularly true for the financial institutions-bank and non-bank. To really address content issues, health care market development requires the same priority IT was obliged during its emergence.

Mostly, development of successful health care market place is beyond infrastructural and IT introductions. It is far above specialist centres introduction. Successful market development requires coordination and integration across sector-stakeholders. Health care governance best practices cannot be achieved without a competitive market place. Purposely, win-win scenarios should be targeted for all stakeholders, businesses and care delivery organizations. But market leadership and institutional largesse will belong to businesses and CDOs that inform their operational, financial, and management visions of this – globally integrated – emerging market.

How Smoking Impacts Your Health Insurance Policy

It’s a well-known fact that smoking causes an adverse effect on your health. You must have seen the warning message on all cigarette boxes – ‘Smoking is injurious to health’. Smoking tobacco is a root cause of 30% of all cancer deaths and causes 16 times higher risk of heart attack.

There are almost 120 million smokers in India. As per World Health Organization, India accommodates around 12% of the world’s smoking population. The number of men smoking tobacco has increased from 78 million in year 1998 to 108 million in the year 2015. Tobacco consumption is accountable for the death of 6 million people each year. Direct tobacco consumption accounts for over 5 million deaths and 0.6 million deaths are due to exposure to second-hand smoke. Considering serious public health risks, the Government has banned smoking in public places from 2nd October, 2008.

Not only your health, it also causes you to pay higher premiums for a health insurance policy, due to increased health risks and shorter life expectancy. A nonsmoker however, gets premium discounts as a reward to lead a healthy lifestyle. Being a smoker, it is advisable not to hide your smoking habit from your health insurance company, as it helps you to cover the smoking-related health issues.

There is a wide curiosity among people, how smoking impacts the health insurance and its cost. Let’s educate yourself about smoking and its impact on health insurance policy.

Smoking – What It Includes

Smoking includes inhalation of of the smoke of burning tobacco in the form of cigarettes, cigars and beedi. Whether you are an occasional smoker or frequent smoker, you will be considered as a smoker under the health insurance policy.

Smokers can buy health insurance, however an insurance company may charge extra premium or reject your application for insurance, depending on the number of cigarettes you smoke on a regular basis. A smoker may also have to go through additional health check-ups that can help an insurance company to ascertain the risk factor and then charge the premium amount accordingly.

How Smoking Affects Your Health and Insurance Premium

Smoking makes the serious impact on your health, some of them are detailed below.

Circulatory System: Smoking results in increased risk in the heartache and blood pressure. Building up of fatty acids could resulting to atherosclerosis.

Immune System: Smoking results in severe and long lasting illnesses. Smokers are more prone to develop ulcers, cancer, pneumonia, high blood pressure, bronchitis, and other viral/bacterial/fungal infections.

Respiratory System: Smoking may damage lung functions and breathlessness. It may cause damage to the air sacs of the lungs, increased chance of developing chronic bronchitis.

Oral Health: Smoking can lead to tooth loss, tooth staining, gum disease which may increase the risk of tooth decay.

Cancer: Smoking for a long time also causes cancer to various body organs.

When it comes to a health insurance policy, an insurance company considers the magnitude of illnesses and deaths caused due to smoking and that’s why, smokers need to pay higher premiums to avail health insurance cover. Typically, the insurance companies charge around 15 to 20 percent higher from a smoker policyholder. Those who smoke would need to undergo additional medical checks, before the insurer issues you the policy.

Let’s understand the difference of premium between a smoker and non-smoker individual.

Ritesh (non-smoker) at 30 years of age buys an individual health plan with Rs 5 Lacs coverage, for 1 year policy term, the chargeable annual premium amount is Rs 4,656. However, Raj (smoker) is buying an individual health plan, he is charged with an annual premium amount of Rs 7,552. An increase in premium amount is only due to the fact that Ansh lies in the smoker category of premium. We can see Raj is paying Rs 2896 extra on account of smoking.

Smoker with Existing Health Problems

If you are a frequent smoker that has caused the symptoms of the declining health condition and getting puzzled whether you can get a health insurance. The answer is yes, the only thing required is to make honest and proper disclosures.

The insurance company will then assess the risk associated with your profile and then decide on terms & conditions and the premium to be charged for providing you a health cover. The premiums charged will be higher and a waiting period will be applied for covering your pre-existing diseases. Moreover, if you are seeking an immediate coverage on your deteriorating health condition, you may go for a critical illness policy.

Conclusion:

Smoking makes an adverse impact on your health and your health insurance policy as well. An insurance company will charge you a higher premium in proportion to the risk associated in providing a health cover. An important point to note that you should disclose all relevant information regarding your health and smoking habits. In case, you are found hiding or providing fake information, the insurance company may decline in settling the claims.

Omega 3 Fatty Acids, The Essential Fat For Your Health

Omega 3 Fatty Acids

Fat is not all bad. In fact, some fats are not only good for you, they are essential to your health and well being. Omega 3 fatty acids are identified as an essential fatty acid and are a good fat. These fats are hugely important to your health. Omega-3 are often called “essential” fatty acids because they are just that, essential to your health and well being. Unfortunately our bodies are unable to manufacture these essential fatty acids so it is important that they are included in our diets.

Where To Get Omega 3 Fatty Acids?

You may already be familiar with the fact that oily fish contain large amounts of omega 3 fatty acids. So consuming tuna, salmon, sardines and trout on a regular basis will ensure you get an adequate intake of Omega 3. But what if you’re not a lover of fish or have a fish allergy? Don’t worry, you do have other options. Other foods rich in omega 3 fatty acids include walnuts, soybeans and flaxseeds; we’ll go into that a bit further later.

There are three major kinds of omega 3 fatty acids

ALA-alpha-linolenic acid

EPA-eicosapentaenoic acid

DHA-docosahexaenoic acid

All three of these fatty acids combine to work together to form the building blocks your body needs for better health. Your body will absorb the ALA and turn it into EPA and DHA, which your body needs for enhancement and improvement. However, this conversion isn’t very efficient and it is recommended that you include EPA and DHA sources in your diet as well.

ALA is found in plant sources like canola oil, soybeans, walnuts, linseeds and pumpkin seeds, but the richest source of ALA is flaxseed, which can be purchased from a health food store.

DHA is found in seafood, algae, and coldwater fish such as salmon, sardines and tuna. You can of course take supplements such as fish oil if you can’t stomach the taste or smell of fish.

EPA is found in many of the same foods as DHA as well as cod liver, herring, mackerel, and halibut.

Health Benefits of Omega 3

Making sure you consume a healthy amount of Omega 3 will give you these health benefits:

Improved Cholesterol

The bad cholesterol (LDL) found in our bodies is lowered by increasing the amount of omega 3 we have in our diet. Many former heart attack patients adding supplements or foods high in omega 3 to their diet reduced their chances of another heart attack by almost 30 percent.

More Brain Power

There are not a lot of foods that contribute to improving the function of our brain. But Omega 3 fatty acids certainly do. These wonderful fatty acids have been shown to reduce depression and memory loss. Research has also unearthed a link between low levels of Omega 3 in the body and mental health issues such as schizophrenia, bi polar disease and ADHD

Inflammation Prevention and Reduction

Research shows that omega 3 fats reduce inflammation, helping to prevent many inflammatory diseases. Arthritis and Osteoarthritis are major inflammation and autoimmune diseases that benefit from adequate amounts of Omega 3’s in your diet.

Omega 3 fatty acids are also known to alleviate the symptoms of chronic Inflammation diseases of the bowel such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.

Lung diseases, such as Asthma can be helped and symptoms alleviated by ensuring you are consuming good levels of Omega 3.

Alleviate Skin Conditions

Omega 3’s have been proven to alleviate the symptoms of skin disorders like acne and psoriasis.

How Much is Enough?

There is really no need to consume huge amounts of Omega 3’s. Simply add fish to your diet twice a week, or if you aren’t into fish or are allergic, try snacking on a quarter cup of seeds and nuts three times a week, or you could simply add a tablespoon of Flaxseed oil to your breakfast each morning. Otherwise there is always supplementation.

In Conclusion

Omega 3 fatty acids are healthy fats which are essential to our diets. The health benefits they provide are amazing and should not be underestimated. If you are considering taking supplements of omega 3, discuss this with your doctor. Determine how much a good recommended dose is for you and make certain it will not interfere with any prescription medications you are currently taking.